HomeTechnologyNot so optimistic? Polygon 2.0 is all about zero-proofs

Not so optimistic? Polygon 2.0 is all about zero-proofs

The trail to Polygon 2.0 is effectively underway, with architectural enhancements, modifications to governance and token updates within the works. However Polygon co-founder Sandeep Nailwal says all of the upgrades, in the end, will hinge on the implementation of zero data (ZK) know-how. 

Nailwal says the present bevy of optimistic rollups are actually nothing greater than stop-gap measures performing as “midterm” options.

“Every researcher in this industry knows that and understands that ZK is the end-game for all of this,” Nailwal tells Blockworks on the Empire podcast (Spotify/Apple).

An optimistic layer-2 rollup, reminiscent of Optimism or Arbitrum, performs computations in “an off-chain environment,” Nailwal explains. Drawback being, he says, is that “you want to prove this computation completely on Ethereum, and you want to make sure that if the users stop trusting this [layer-2] chain, they can exit” to the layer-1 chain. Due to this, he says, “you still have to provide all the data back to Ethereum.”

Learn extra: Polygon 2.0 is crypto’s ‘most relevant technical announcement’: FalconX

Optimistic rollups are a reasonably easy know-how, Nailwal says, the place it’s presumed that layer-2 chains are working precisely and actually, therefore the time period “optimistic.” Within the case of incorrect or fraudulent exercise, a fraud proof may be initiated throughout a delay interval. 

That delay interval can take a number of days of neighborhood vigilance. 

“All the transactions are happening on layer-2,” Nailwal explains. “You put all the data back on Ethereum, and you put all the proofs back on Ethereum.” As a result of all of it ultimately settles on Ethereum, prices for optimistic rollups are nonetheless comparatively excessive, in keeping with Nailwal.

The web has scaled the identical method

Zero data takes a distinct strategy, as a substitute utilizing a extra environment friendly “constant size proof” that takes the identical quantity of computation to confirm transactions. 

“Let’s say you are that chain,” Nailwal says, “and you executed a hundred thousand transactions. You don’t need to give me the data of those hundred thousand transactions.”

Solely a ZK proof is required, he explains, proving modifications from the earlier state to the present state of knowledge. “The moment I verify, I am a hundred percent sure that everything you did is correct. So you can already imagine the amount of scale you can achieve.”

“With ZK rollups, you don’t even need to put the data back on Ethereum,” he provides.

Whereas optimistic rollups depend on “socioeconomic games,” Nailwal says, zero data proofs as a substitute depend on arithmetic. Not solely does checking for fraud on an optimistic rollup take time, but it surely additionally requires a hefty funding, Nailwal provides. 

Working a single node to examine for fraud on a layer-2 chain may cost a little round $5,000 a month, he says. “Now imagine you have 10 optimistic chains.” Prices can add up shortly if a neighborhood needs to run a bigger variety of nodes to make sure decentralization, he says. “Hence, those socioeconomic proofs do not scale.” Within the case of ZK proofs, Nailwal says, “you can have millions and millions of chains.”

Not solely do ZK proofs allow “infinite scalability” with 1000’s of chains solely having to ship proofs to Ethereum, in addition they permit for “unified liquidity,” Nailwal says. An LX-LY bridge will permit funds to maneuver between layer-2 chains with out ever selecting Ethereum. “All these chains become interoperable at a time scale of 2 to 10 seconds,” he says.

The huge array of chains would then begin to really feel like a single block house, Nailwal says. “And if you actually look back, you will see the internet has also scaled in the same way.”

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